Author: Walaa Elkassas

IPhone X Face Recognition and the sensitivity of the biometric data

IPhone X Face Recognition and the sensitivity of the biometric data

What is iPhone face recognition?

The upcoming iPhone X will use Face ID, technology that unlocks your iPhone X by using infrared and visible light scans to uniquely identify your face.

What is Face ID?

Face ID a form of biometric authentication. Rather than a password (something you know) or a security dongle or authentication app (something you have), biometrics are something you are. Fingerprint recognition is also a biometric.

Instead of one or more fingerprints, as with Touch ID, Face ID relies on the unique characteristics of your face.

How does it work?

  • Initially scan your face accurately enough to recognize it later.
  • Compare a new scan with the stored one with enough flexibility to recognize you nearly all the time.
  • Scan your face in a wide variety of lighting conditions.
  • Update your facial details as you age, change hairstyles, grow a mustache, change your eyebrows, get plastic surgery, and so forth to still recognize you.
  • Let you wear hats, scarves, gloves, contact lenses, and sunglasses, and still be recognized.
  • Not allow a similar-looking person, a photograph, a mask, or other techniques to unlock your phone.

Apple uses a combination of infrared emitter and sensor (which it calls TrueDepth) to paint 30,000 points of infrared light on and around your face and also captures flat or 2D infrared snapshots. For the points, the reflection is measured, which allows it to calculate depth and angle from the camera for each dot and construct a depth map.

Live depth mapping is also used for live tracking for Animoji, the talking animals heads—and piles of poo—that match your facial expressions and lip movement, and other selfie special effects, and is provided to third-party developers. But live depth mapping doesn’t offer up raw sensor data that would let a developer re-create a Face ID map.

Where biometric data are kept and how secure is it, is there any violation to Privacy laws in this technology?

Apple’s description of enrollment and comparison is very similar to Touch ID. The enrollment sends data through a one-way channel to the Secure Enclave, a special tamper-resistant chip bound deeply inside the iPhone and iPad architecture that can only respond with limited information, such as confirming a match was made when unlocking for Apple Pay and the like. Secure Enclave also stores some other private information.

As a result, Apple doesn’t collect this information and process it centrally, nor does it store it on the device in a manner that can be retrieved by cracking a phone, a phone backup, or intercepting information to and from it.

However, the concern remains that, with proprietary technology under the control of Apple, a government could force changes that would pass or extract facial identification information, or perform comparisons with faces that a government is looking for.

In the current hardware architecture, however, that seems unlikely. Apple has engineered its systems so that there’s no reasonable way to rework it to change the flow of facial (or, with Touch ID, fingerprint) information to a different source. It would have to create a whole new kind of phone and new firmware.

As an off note; till now there is no 100% guarantee that biometric data will be 100% secured and can’t be hacked a third party applications if the phone lands in the wrong hands.

Pros & cons of face recognition?


  • Improve the speed and convenience of daily activities for consumers, like shopping, where a customer could simply look into a camera, have their face identified , and pay for a transaction in a matter of moments.
  • It can also help with surveillance, having the ability to monitor thousands of faces from security cameras.


  • Security part of this technology would be that people’s every movement could be tracked without their consent.  This could also possibly be used by the government to identify and follow political opponents, which would cause a great amount of conflict in a country.



Why does the risk management matter?

Why does the risk management matter?

Why does the risk management matter?

The last thing that any project will want to face is risks. Projects are designed to take advantage of resources and opportunities and with these, come uncertainty, challenges and risk. Hence Risk Management becomes a very important key to all project success.

Risk Management: is the project manager’s friend. Done well, it helps you ensure that the ‘appetite for risk’ is appropriately understood at the start; that all risks are agreed upon, prioritised, assessed, communicated and understood in alignment with this ‘risk appetite’; and that you have a solid platform to track agreed actions, including escalation up the management chain if necessary.

Why would you develop a Risk Management Plan?

  • Provide a useful tool for managing and reducing the risks identified before and during the project.
  • Document risk mitigation strategies being pursued in response to the identified risks and their grading in terms of likelihood and seriousness.
  • Provide the Project Sponsor, Steering Committee/senior management with a documented framework from which risk status can be reported upon.
  • Ensure the communication of risk management issues to key stakeholders.
  • Provide a mechanism for seeking and acting on feedback to encourage the involvement of the key stakeholders.
  • Identify the mitigation actions required for implementation of the plan and associated costings.

Risk Management steps:

  • Risk Identification.

It means to engage all the project team to identify what are the possible risks that could happen during the project life cycle.

  • Risk Analysis.

Is to analyse the risks identified based on likelihood and impact and product the Risk matrix.

Risk Matrix:

It is used during risk assessment to define the level of risk by considering the category of probability or likelihood against the category of consequence severity. This is a simple mechanism to increase visibility of risks and assist management decision making.


  • Risk Response.

Once we identify where the risk lies in the matrix then we can identify the best response which can be any of the below:

  • Avoid – eliminate the threat by eliminating the cause
  • Mitigate – Identify ways to reduce the probability or the impact of the risk
  • Accept – Nothing will be done
  • Transfer – Make another party responsible for the risk (buy insurance, outsourcing, etc.)


  • Risk Monitoring & controlling

The level of risk on a project will be tracked, monitored and reported throughout the project life cycle.

A “Top 10 Risk List” will be maintained by the project team and will be reported as a component of the project status reporting process for this project.

All project change requests will be analysed for their possible impact to the project risks.

Management will be notified of important changes to risk status as a component to the Executive Project Status Report.



The triple constraint in Project Management

The triple constraint in Project Management

The triple constraint in Project Management

They are the key attributes that must be handled effectively for successful completion and closure of any project.

These constraints are: TIME…..COST…..SCOPE

If we consider the below scenario:

(Note X, Y & Z are just used for explanation and they represent the units of each e.g: Z TIME = 5 days, X Tasks = 30 tasks & Y Cost = $1000 ->  that means in order to deliver the 30 tasks in 5 days you need $1000 as a cost, etc…)

The below figure represent a triangle that has 2 main dimensions (X, Y & Z)

  • If Z TIME is the required to deliver X Tasks using Y Cost “Budget


  • Y COST is needed to deliver X Tasks in Z Time


  • X TASKS can only be delivered if I have Y Cost and in Z Time
  • Quality is the volume of the triangle – To keep the quality the same then any change in one of the triangle dimensions need to have some adjustment in the other 2 dimensions

Walaa Elkassas

Walaa Elkassas


I’m Walaa Elkassas; an Egyptian girl graduated from engineering faculty. After my high school my dream was to be a doctor but my grades didn’t match the medicine faculty grades at that time that was the first shock I got in my life but I decided to study engineering while I was not an engineering lover but I was a strong math and logic person so I decided to take the challenge and to succeed.

In starting my days were so hard but I was doing my best and I was telling myself that I must do my best till I graduated with higher grades and I must succeed from that time I grew up believing that it is all about decisions and whenever you take the decision and you believe in yourself plus working hard then you can achieve what you want.

My next challenge was I wanted to study networks and when I enrolled into the diploma then I found the networks section is not in my current town. I asked for my parents permission but they didn’t allow at that time and the other option was to study programming which again was not my best subject at college. I struggled to love that subject but again I found myself in a situation that needs to take a decision and I took the decision to succeed this as well.

After my graduation I started working with an international company as a junior developer where I found myself in the work place with no experience, my manager was not so much helpful but I felt thankful to him at the end when I started to look for information and i gained the confidence that I can find solutions to any problem without asking for help and after a short period of time my manager left the company and I was alone in the whole software section with full software responsibility and that was my 3rd challenge but based on rewards and working with the company for 9 years till I decided to immigrate to Australia was an enough proof that I was doing good.

During my working period, I worked on many different projects. the company was an industrial business where I worked in different area of expertise and I got to know many business domain knowledge. I worked on implementing an in house ERP that serve the whole company from commercial side to operational side moving into implementation of SAP where I was one of the core team members and I played a very important role “I had been awarded for that work”. I consider myself as a successful person on a professional level as whoever I work with is always ready to support me even if we are not working with each others anymore.

Talking about my personal skills, I’m so patient and passionate person for learning new skills. I love to socialize but I like my privacy as well. I love nature, music & hanging out.